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It seems logical that in democratic states where the voting right is real the principle of universal suffrage yields a multitude of incentives for opportunistic behavior. We are going to verify the above hypothesis with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Universal suffrage begot powerful leftist parties. The leftists started generous spending to care about everyone. Generous spending caused the peacetime budget deficit. Sorrentino pointed out the trend of a decrease in males' participation in labor force, simultaneously with the female's participation increase.

Female employment reflects the growing uncertainty of women within the family and a generally weakened family institution Shestakov, Yanovskiy, ; Yanovskiy, Shestakov, We think that the dataset used by Chilean colleagues is not suitable for the case: 46 countries, most of which never experienced taxpayers' democracy.

Below we list some such interest groups. Bureaucrats are interested in maximizing spending Tullock, , Niskanen, and obtaining more discretionary power, excessive authority Jasay, Some entrepreneurs obtain their principal income from the government by providing goods and services for state needs sometimes through the extraordinarily fortunate sequence of won tenders. Public mass- media and public education employees interested in obtaining their budgetary "fair share" both reliably and independent of the quality of the work performed.

They enjoy privilege and opportunities funded by taxpayers to influence elections' outcomes. They participate in elections to impose higher taxation and restrict political and media competition.

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Finally, in many countries a large group of immigrants arrive with the expressed purpose of receiving welfare Borjas , ; Hansen, Lofstrom, ; Azarnert, This claim is even less well reasoned regarding those who can work and earn and are responsible for their dire condition Spencer, The real reasons for such "generosity" are easily explained by the interest of the increased number of voting recipients of mixed public goods and welfare. Smith considered the absence of such a tax-extorting coalition and modeled financing of public goods. He concluded that taxpayers are capable of developing a private mechanism agreement for financing even pure public goods.

Our present suggestions do not go this far. Universal suffrage opens the door for bureaucrats to capture the government, building a political machine driven by electoral clientelism and vote-buying. Dependent 9 Chapter 7, para 9. So "impartial administration of Justice" without "indulgence to poor man" is not enough for him The volume of mixed public goods provided by the state has risen sharply since universal suffrage was introduced. And historical statistics of the dynamics of state debt and inflation11 leads to the same conclusions. Before universal suffrage, budgetary problems were almost exclusively due to military shocks or other exogenous upheavals of a similar magnitude.

In the era of universal suffrage, a budget deficit, growing state debt, and inflation became the norm. Introducing universal suffrage lowers the civic competence, skill, and overall quality of the voter, making voters on average considerably more dependent, less educated, less experienced in life, etc. Somin, A property-related or tax-related qualifying requirement does not deprive people of their democratic rights, but rather creates an additional stimulus to achieve economic self- sufficiency Przeworski, , p. A tremendous increase in legislative action in old democracies must be emphasized the problem addressed by Hayek, , as parties "vied for the support of the new working-class voters by enacting legislation to buy their votes" Green, , p.

Introducing universal suffrage has led to drastic growth in state expenditures Aidt et al. Boix stressed that public sector expansion is a feature immanent to modern democratic regimes with "high participation" which he equates with universal suffrage. He shows that the public sector burden is minimal under "low participation" democracy13, the heaviest under "high participation" democracy and intermediate under autocratic government.

Introducing universal suffrage weakened safeguards of private property Acemoglu, Robinson, as feared by Aristotle who warned against "ochlocracy" — the sort of the "mob rule" and conservative-minded Founding Fathers like Madison14 and Adams. The latter wrote "Perhaps, at first, prejudice, habit, shame or fear, principle or 12 The paper deals with a shorter period: , working with more detailed specifications of channels of influence upon growth. The magnitude of state consumption is among the influence channels of this kind, having an obvious and significant impact upon growth rates.

At the same time, the magnitude of state consumption is positively and statistically bound up with democracy in a significant way see Table 10 on p. Przeworski et al. This experience by itself should raise grave concerns about the sustainability of democracy under universal suffrage see for example Blaydes, Lo, For the appropriate survey, see Przeworski , pp.

John C. His prediction is now coming true, though the private property institution is not yet completely destroyed as Karl Marx hoped. Some of voters' incentives, typical for selected social groups 3. Incentives of the voter-taxpayer Taxpayers hate to waste money. Extensive discussion on the expedition against Tripoli pirates at the turn of 18th century lasted for many years London, The government control programs and resource mobilization in the US after WWI were abandoned, proving the relative strength of taxpayers' incentives even after the transition to universal suffrage in the USA.

However, we failed to find an actually realized historical pattern reproducing "legal plunder" of the poor and disenfranchised taxpayers by their rich fellow citizens. We believe that the discretionary powers are principal component of bureaucrats' utility too de Jasay, Therefore a conscientious and enlightened official should submit a statement about conflicts of interest, and abstain from voting until retirement or demotion.

The lifetime utility of a bureaucrat depends on his her tenure. All components tenure, budget and discretionary powers heavily depend on two institutions: civil service autonomy and universal suffrage. Civil service autonomy pushes up tenure, and universal suffrage drastically extends non-military spending Aidt et al, ; Yanovskiy, Zatcovetsky, Both long-lasting tenure and budget-dependent voters' political power increase bureaucrats' opportunity to obtain greater discretionary powers. Several cases of voting behavior of budget-dependent voters are discussed below.

A clear example of the bureaucracy's interference in the electoral results can be seen in the attempt of the Works Progress Administration to recruit voters among the clients in Bureaucrats emerged as staunch fighters against private discrimination see for example the Federal Contract Compliance manual The enforcement of anti- discrimination legislation is widely deployed against private entities for two principal ends: to severely restrict freedom of contract and to promote the special interests of groups that predominantly vote for the Nanny state and Big Government see for more details paper Yanovskiy, Zhavoronkov and Zatcovetsky, This applies in part also to those entrepreneurs who derive most of their income from the state budget.

Voting privileges for the dependent and the very idea "you are entitled to social welfare" promoted by tax-spenders' political parties the leftists explain the de-stigmatization of welfare reception process Voters of Detroit and New Orleans support their mayors even after catastrophic failures. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin was successfully re-elected in after his failure to provide relief after Hurricane Katrina Detroit mayor Kwame Malik Kilpatrick was successfully re-elected in after numerous scandals22 McGraw, Federal Judge Alcee Lamar Hastings was impeached in after he was found guilty in bribery and perjury.

To provide the reader due translation the term: "Social Justice" tracing from Russian expression "socialnaya spravedlivost', as in Russian very word "spravedlivost" — "justice" is broadly understood as relating to redistribution "to benefit poor" , this statement to some extent reminds us of the standard Conflict of Interest Statement "I have involvement, affiliation and financial interest…" with an inverted conclusion: "so I determined to vote, though my personal interest dominates the common goods' considerations. Modern peacetime offers no satisfying explanation other than reduced incentives of the historically-new voters to supervise their representatives.

Taxation rate sensibility for this group turned out to be insignificant; at least we failed to find such evidence while exploring the electoral history. There are lots and lots of similar cases. That shows us the crucial difference between the institutions. Democracy betrayed by Voter In the era of the universal suffrage a phenomenon of mass voting for anti- democratic parties emerges.

We actually witness voting for the abolition of democracy per se. We observed it in Weimar Republic during the elections in the 5th, 6th and 7th Reichstag last free elections took place in During Reconstruction, a sizeable share of black voters turned to be uninclined to preserve their franchise and essentially sold their votes, paving the way to the Compromise commonly blamed for disenfranchising free men Woodward, , p.

Vann Woodward , p. Such low-valued goods suffrage not backed by the paying of taxes can be easily exchanged for just a promise of all-encompassing lifetime care or even of national prestige. On the other hand, we have never observed voluntary suffrage given up by those who paid for it. Statistical Analysis Data and Variables Data: for the data detailed description and sources see Supplemental materials pp. Observation period: An Reconstruction period as corrupt as any state legislature in the South.

Regulatory burden measured by modified index of freedom from regulation Historical Index of economic Freedom, - De La Escosura, — see for details Supplemental materials; Wars: great wars dummy World Wars and Civil War for the USA, and included , local wars dummy binary variable. Religion: protestant or catholic binary variable.

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We marked country as protestant or catholic based on historical tradition. Elections to the parliament lower chamber are considered. Political system variables: Federation: dummy variable for federate states.

United States

Public Media binary variable: "1" if public media like TV or radio historically dominate in political news and events coverage. To manage the missed values data problem, an additional dataset with imputed data see Supplemental Materials was created. The regressions' outcomes turned out to be almost the same as before imputation.

First we identified several relationships of interest between budget deficit, inflation and left-wing voting with variables that might historically be at work in causing them, so the correlation should be present in the data. Then we estimated these relationships with ordinary least squares OLS method and by panel regressions.

Special attention was paid to how coefficients will be affected if unobservable heterogeneity is taken into account as for time and countries. For each relationship we estimate pooled OLS, fixed effect and random effect panel regressions. That gives us a possibility to fit the best model in each case with Hausman test. Panel regressions usually yield more robust results than pooled OLS.

On the side of results we can see that political variables such as universal suffrage and power rotation are doing great job in explaining such economic outcomes as budget deficit or inflation. All main variables of interest are significant and have the expected sign: rise of universal franchise extends left-wing voting and on average increases the deficit, although large country effects suggest that there are considerable variations among the national systems. We also have some expected results with dummies, such as involvement of a country in one of the Great wars increasing its deficit.

Federation decreases government deficit, which is somewhat at odds with the booming research of economic implications of constitutions Persson and Tabellini, In Table 2 estimation results are shown for the statistical link between universal suffrage and budget deficit in Table 1 — indirectly with the list of different variables possibly contributing to the amplifying state expenditures. The link remains significant and positive. Similar results were achieved when controlling for federation or government involvement into big infrastructure projects. The story is pretty simple. As public media activity is a clear example of mixed public goods provision and prioritizing care over defense, public media left "liberal", "progressive" bias looks quite natural.

Table 1. Table 2. Wars and Universal Suffrage are responsible for deficit. They show that explanatory power of the 'left-wing voting' variables is approximately the same as 'universal suffrage', 'civil law' and religion taken together. The sign implies that leftist parties contribute both to the growth of budget deficit Table 4 and inflation Table 5.

Table 4. Table 5. Left Parties' power increases Inflation and regulatory burden. So the regression outcomes help to explain the governmental spending expansion political mechanism as well as poorly-controlled peacetime budget deficits. Female employment reflects the growing uncertainty of women within the family and a generally weakened family institution. The connection of the declining family institution and the universal suffrage was studied by Shestakov et al Table 6. A well-designed program significantly benefits targeted voters while remaining quite affordable for the rest of the voters the machinery is very similar to special interest groups, Olson, The incentive to "buy" voters by entitlements or by the expansion of the public sector to ensure re-election is extraordinary.

The political power of such taxpayers and their ability to fight back are restricted, but significant. The toughest challenge is to cut spending and cancel entitlement programs. Mass civil unrest is routinely created by any attempts to cut spending. The protests and opposition to new or higher taxes are not unique. But it is difficult to find examples of the public or elected officials objecting to new and costly entitlement programs despite the possibility of a financial crises and heavier taxation in long run.

So, the balance of political power under universal suffrage is poorly designed to balance the budget in the long run. Universal suffrage creates a highly politicized budget process unlikely to result in a balanced budget. Competition for budget shares among departments is regularly accompanied by the creation or invention of new governmental programs, which must be financed, new responsibilities and respective powers the more discretionary, the better. The paupers' franchise naturally leads to the presumption of the "bounded capacity" of the consumer and worker who need to be protected by business regulations.

The natural alliance of civil bureaucrats and paupers stokes anti-capitalist ideology or sentiments. The prevalent ideology creates the legal presumption that businesses are acting in bad faith mala fide. Naturally, the representatives of welfare-dependent voters — their elected politicians — claim that there is an urgent need for more business regulations.

The expansion of various business regulations and, more broadly, the belief and willingness to cure every social vice by extensive legislation indicate the acuteness of the problem. Green, , p. Jasay's model of power-maximizing State Jasay, predicts the same development of the regulations freedom of contract erosion, p. If returning to the democracy of the taxpayer is a priori unrealistic, does it make any sense to focus on the flaws inherent in universal suffrage? With restaurants, stores, theater, shops, a hotel, and occasional access to the People Mover, the "Ren Cen" offers a variety of stores and personal services.

Pewabic tiles grace everything from fireplaces to lobbies in many of Detroit's historic homes. The pottery studio, founded in by Mary Chase Perry Stratton, moved in to its present address. A Tudor mansion, the shop operates as a nonprofit arts center and museum. Visitors can learn about the pottery process through a self-guided tour and view both antique and contemporary displays of pieces designed and executed by Stratton and her earliest students. Many of the Pewabic art pieces, which include tiles, candlesticks, and vases, are available for purchase. Finally, there are the outdoor strip malls and several indoor shopping malls in the suburban areas outside Detroit.

Most are within a minute ride of the city. Hours and locations are listed in the local yellow page directory. A rich resource of which Detroit is proud is the wide array of educational services and schools available. Anyone can improve skills, learn new technology , and earn degrees or certification in a variety of fields, all within a short radius of the city. Dog grooming, court reporting, beauty, seminary, x-ray technology, modeling, and flying are only a few of the many fields in which certification is available. Of the nation's 3, accredited colleges and universities , the top classifications must annually award 50 or more doctoral degrees.

Wayne State awarded in Rated in the country's top three percent, WSU is located in the heart of the University Cultural Center and has branch extension centers throughout the metropolitan area. The university offers over 5, courses, bachelor programs, 61 doctoral programs, and 30 certification specialist and professional programs. Additionally, there are several privately funded institutions that join the ranks of higher education. Many of Detroit's medical care facilities are considered outstanding.

Children's Hospital is no exception. Nationally recognized for exceptional care and facilities, the hospital continues to provide top-notch service for children's health care needs. In addition, The Detroit Medical Center DMC , also located downtown, is the regulating center for seven hospitals, 3, doctors, two nursing centers, primary care physicians, and both teaching and clinical research for Wayne State University. Detroit is headquarters to Blue Cross-Blue Shield of Michigan, one of the nations largest health care providers.

They welcomed the first millennium baby in the United States, Bella Rose, born on January 1, , at the stroke of midnight. Like most progressive centers, Detroit has a good amount of media resources. These two publications share production facilities but are each printed daily and cover both local and national news. The Free Press is the morning edition, and the News hits stands in the afternoon.

Sunday's paper is a combined effort, and this system works well. The Observer and Eccentric newspapers produce geographic editions, focusing on local suburban news. Covering alternative and funk is the Metro Times, which discusses music, dining, and shopping. For listening pleasure, there are an abundance of radio stations that play a diverse mix of country, rock, jazz, soul and motown, classical, and offbeat music 24 hours a day.

Listeners who enjoy talk radio can tune in to AM stations WJR, which covers topics of public interest, or WWJ radio, the first commercial radio station in America, which encourages a reader forum to exchange ideas. Detroit sports bring only one word to mind — championship. In addition to optimal convention facilities and festivals, sporting arenas like the Palace of Auburn Hills, Joe Louis Arena, and the new multi-plex Comerica Park are second to none. Detroit is a huge sports town with loyal fans who won't hesitate to prove their dedication.

The Motor City boasts a long history of sports legends. A sculpture memorializing boxer Joe Louis, designed by Edward N. Hamilton, is located in Cobo Convention Center's main entrance. Also in the Center is memorabilia on Louis's life and career. In addition to producing sports superstars, the past two decades have produced a series of victories for professional sports teams in Detroit. Blending innovation, show business, and sports tradition, Comerica Park seats 40, fans. The stadium also hosts a passenger ferris wheel on site. The sport park's turn-of-the-century theme is underscored with the passenger ferris wheel cars designed like baseballs.

In keeping with respect for the game, Comerica Park houses the largest scoreboard in baseball history.

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Complementing its world-class sports teams, Detroit has most recently introduced the Detroit Shock, playing for the Women's National Basketball Association; the Vipers, playing for the International Hockey League; and the Detroit Rockers, playing soccer. Detroit parks are hot spots for recreation. There are hundreds of lakes in the region and miles of rivers and streams. Michigan claims more registered boaters than any other state and boasts about public and private golf courses, not to mention dozens of downhill ski runs and cross-county trails within easy driving distance.

In the city, Chene Park winds gently along the waterfront, landscaped and inviting. Summertime brings a mix of open-air concerts, festivals, and people. Belle Isle is an island park, spread over hectares acres in the Detroit River. Native Americans called the island "Mah-nah-be-zee," or Swan Island. French settlers called it Isle St. During the eighteenth century, farmers used the island as a safe haven for animals; thus, it also became known as Hog Island. However, it was renamed Belle Isle, which translates as beautiful island, and by , it was a popular picnic spot for city residents.

The original park, designed by Frederick L. Olmsted — , featured only recreational canals; however, in the early s, the city built Lake Takoma, Lake Okonoka, and some other canals. Historically, walkways along the water, ornate bridges, and covered bandstands were popular attractions. Canoeing was an important recreational activity for island visitors. In the s, the Civilian Work Authority CWA labored with shovels, wheel barrows, and small tractors to create more canals and lakes on the island.

Belle Isle supports over three kilometers two miles of canals and four lakes, ranging from 7 to 17 hectares 18 to 43 acres. However, some years of neglect have resulted in stagnant water, excessive weed growth, and poor aesthetic character. Today, Belle Isle is one of the most used parks in the city of Detroit. It provides many of its four million annual visitors opportunities to participate in a variety of recreational experiences within a unique natural environment.

Recognizing the value of this resource, the City of Detroit Recreation Department has committed to restoring basic water recreational activities, which have historically been part of the Belle Isle experience. Boating enthusiasts can find worthy marinas in the area. Aubin can be obtained by phoning the supervisor. Several area recreation centers offer the opportunity for fitness, swimming, and ice skating for youth and seniors alike.

World renowned for its musical history, Detroit frequently jives with live performances at a variety of downtown venues. Most venues have been architecturally preserved and are an important part of Detroit's performance art history. The Detroit Public Library is an independent municipal corporation governed by a seven-member Detroit Library Commission. In addition to the main locale, there are 24 branch libraries, a Municipal Reference Library, Special Collections, and a bookmobile service for seniors and shut-ins. Library revenues originate from resources that include money from the state equity grant, penal fines, the single business tax reimbursement, the city general fund, state air, and the city of Detroit property taxes.

The Main Library receives funding as a state of Michigan resource. Detroit is also home to many legendary museums and celebrated galleries. Erected in , the striking building houses " The Thinker, " a famous outdoor sculpture by Auguste Rodin — Locals are proud, and visitors are surprised by the museum's treasures. Included galleries are those of Italian Renaissance Art, the works of notable African-American artists, a rare armor collection, and the masterworks of luminaries Van Gogh, Rembrandt, and Warhol.

A guidebook helps mural viewers discover hidden symbols, including faces of celebrated people tucked into the scenes. Galleries featuring Ancient Art, Islamic, and the audio phone tour of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are only a few of the unique exhibits. Music plus museum equals Motown — Berry Gordy's love child that changed the voice of America was founded on the streets of Detroit in The museum memorializes the sights and sounds of artists who graced that period. Greenfield Village is living history at its best. Authentic representation of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early twentieth-century America, museum presenters are dressed in period clothing and encourage visitor participation with chores like dishwashing and candle making.

Detroit has a reputation that beckons loudly, and it is becoming a popular tourist destination. With great enthusiasm, visitors are flocking to the Motor City. In fact, the Detroit metropolitan area Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties combined drew more than 16 million visitors last year. The Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau is a non-profit organization that promotes Detroit as a destination for meetings, conventions, trade shows, and visitors.

March Annual St. The Motor City is well known for its automotive legends and musicians. The following people also call Detroit their hometown:. Charles Lindbergh — 74 , airmail pilot who achieved worldwide fame by making the first non-stop solo transatlantic flight. Ralph J. Francis Ford Coppola b. Singers Diana Ross b. Singer-actresses Madonna Madonna Louise Ciccone, b. Actors George C. Scott — 99 and Tom Selleck b. Robin Williams b. Joe Louis Joseph Louis Barrow, b. Alabama , — 81 , heavyweight boxing champion from to Baseball Hall of Famer Al Kaline b. Maryland , , a Detroit Tigers star.

Detroit Institute of Arts. Metro Guide. Visit Detroit. Fort Street, Suite Detroit, Michigan Observer and Eccentric Newspapers E. Maple Birmingham, MI Beasley, Norman and George W. Made in Detroit. New York : Putnam's Sons, Henrickson, Wilma Wood. Detroit Perspectives, Crossroads and Turning Points. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 27, Retrieved September 27, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Part of the distinction of Detroit Jews derives from the nature and history of Detroit. Its economy, the first to emerge as distinctly 20 th century American — that is, mobile, grounded in automobiles, roads, and related industries, and therefore suburbs, shopping centers, and massive industrial complexes like the Ford Rouge Plant — produced enormous wealth or the prospects of it. If Jewish immigration to the U. Jews came from other American cities, seeking employment in the Ford factories or the related industries. Sometimes families that had been in this country for as many as 20 years picked up and left places like New York , Philadelphia, Indianapolis, Cleveland, or Baltimore to come to Detroit.

Jews had come to Michigan in the 18 th century as fur traders and merchants. Chapman Abraham, Detroit's first known Jewish settler, arrived in Detroit in and became a successful trader for more than 20 years. Chapman Abraham was captured during the Indian siege of Detroit, and after two harrowing months was released in exchange for an Indian chief. During the American Revolution Abraham fought in Canada against the invading Americans, remaining a loyalist all his life. Later records show he lived in Detroit in Louis Benjamin was awarded a new plot of ground in to indemnify him for his loss in Detroit's great fire of Frederick E.

Cohen, an English Jew, was in Detroit in during the Canadian rebellion, when he served in the Canadian militia. He became a prominent portrait painter, the first Jewish artist in Michigan. His self-portrait hangs in the Detroit Institute of Arts. German Jews arrived in Detroit in significant numbers in the s. Charles E. Bresler, a settler of the Ann Arbor -Ypsilanti area in the s, moved to Detroit in He dealt in horses, furs, and wool, and made a fortune importing steel pens.

Edward Kanter arrived in Detroit that same year, moving to Mackinac the following year where he was employed by the American Fur Company. Later he worked for the Leopold Brothers, pioneers on the island of Mackinac in the fishery business, and fur traders. Kanter returned to Detroit in and became Detroit's first Jewish banker and the first Michigan Jew to serve in the state legislature.

Kanter Street is named after him. Simon Freedman, a settler of Adrian, Michigan, in the early s, established a large dry goods business in Detroit around , joined by his family. Like Besler, the Freedman brothers were among the founders of Beth El: Joseph was the first secretary of the congregation, Simon served as president, and Herman was president of the religious school board. In the s David J. Wockum was the first Jew to serve on the Detroit Board of Education. In a half acre of land on Champlain later Lafayette Street was purchased for a cemetery, the oldest Jewish congregational cemetery in Michigan.

Beth El congregation's first rabbi, Samuel Marcus, was interred there in during a cholera epidemic. Originally an Orthodox congregation, Beth El became Reform in , resulting in the withdrawal of 17 members who formed the Orthodox Shaarey Zedek congregation, later an important Conservative congregation. Detroit's Jewish population leaped during the so-called Great Migration from Eastern Europe , especially from to and from to when the government instituted its immigration restrictions.

Relations between the Ostjuden newcomers, most of whom were of the Orthodox tradition, and the more acculturated German Jews, primarily members of Temple Beth El, were ambivalent. Considerations of class, social standing, religious outlook, and degree of Americanization tended to keep the groups separate. However, the German community's sense of obligation to their less fortunate coreligionists overcame their feelings of antipathy, at least publicly, with the founding of two new charitable societies, the Hebrew Ladies' Sewing Society and the Self-Help Circle , organized to assist the new immigrants, although many of them felt patronized.

In a Detroit News article noted that "it is very rare that a German Israelite seeks relief from anybody," contrasting German Jews with East European Jews who needed charity. By , however, a Detroit Free Press article pointed out that Russian Jews, while not so successful in business as German Jews, were "making their way upward.

They are men with characteristics that make any nation strong. Some Eastern Europeans, conscious of the gulf between themselves and the city's German Jewish community, preferred to establish communal institutions more responsive to their special needs.

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When the Farband Shule declared itself "the non-parteische" non-partisan school, it meant it was not a Hersh Leckert School. Realizing that the profusion of Jewish charities resulted in unnecessary duplication and waste, Leo M. David W. Simons was the first president and Blanche Hart was superintendent until Despite differences, the German and the East European groups managed to cooperate in communal undertakings. This was exemplified when Temple Beth El, oldest and most prestigious congregation in the city, agreed to join the Kehilla organized by the Orthodox community.

Starting in the s, Detroit's Jewish communities concentrated most heavily in the retail and wholesale clothing trades, mostly as proprietors of their own businesses, and in the clerical or white collar occupations as salesmen, insurance agents, and office workers. While Jews did not dominate any trade the way they did the garment industry in New York, a Jewish "monopoly" in Detroit's economic life did develop in the waste material and scrap metal business.

By the late s Jews outnumbered gentiles in this industry, and by the s it had become almost solely a "Jewish" industry. This dominance was to continue after World War ii. Jews participated in the political life of Detroit during this period. Samuel Goldwater, a city alderman in and the Democratic Party's candidate for mayor in , was the major force behind the organization of the Michigan Federation of Labor David E.

Heineman served as a member of the state legislature — and Detroit's City Council —09 , and was city controller during — In he was president of the American League of Municipalities; he also designed the flag of Detroit. Charles C. Simons was a state senator Simons was a member of the first nine-man city council The outbreak of World War i ended European immigration to Detroit until In the Jewish communities contained one Reform and 19 Orthodox congregations and by the Jewish population had risen to 85, as the number of congregations rose to During these years the Jews of Detroit strengthened their communal organization.

Its first director was Morris D. Eventually housed in the Fred M. The Jewish Community Council, organized in , comprised organizations and immediately took an active role in urban affairs, the civil rights movement, holding joint meetings with the naacp and African American clergy. They would later offer staunch support of Israel. The first community-wide fund drive of the Jewish Welfare Federation in had 3, contributors; in there were 20, contributors; and in and the city's Allied Jewish Campaigns raised two of the highest per capita totals in the U.

Jewish education received a boost in when the United Hebrew Schools was organized by a merger of two talmud torahs.

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By the United Hebrew Schools had ten branches. If Detroit had become known for its modern, industrial achievements, it also gained a more infamous, less savory reputation that set it apart from other cities. It was unfortunately tarnished by its social and cultural blights.

Racism and antisemitism may have been common features of the American cultural landscape in the 20 th century, but their malevolence in Detroit was unmatched anywhere else. Father Charles Coughlin's vitriolic antisemitic national radio broadcasts in the s, Henry Ford 's anti-Jewish newspaper campaign in the Dearborn Independent during the s, the Black Legion's night-riders and lynching, Gerald L.

Smith and others, still evoke fear and anger in Detroit Jews. The s also saw Detroit's German American Bund become fairly active. Along with news of the events in Europe, more subtle actions like department store ads from J. Hudson's that read "only Gentiles need apply," and public swimming pools that did not allow Jews to swim, or restrictive covenants that prevented Jews from purchasing or renting houses in Pleasant Ridge or Grosse Pointe or Birmingham, appreciably increased anxiety among Jews in Detroit.

The ujc Survey had noted: there appeared to be "no Jewish labor class consciousness in Detroit. Perhaps the most notable example of this was the Detroit Laundry and Linen Drivers Association founded and led by Isaac Litwak in Within two years it had become Teamster Local and in carried out no fewer than 12 major strikes. Locked out of other, more traditional Jewish enterprises like department stores because of antisemitism, Jews logically gravitated from tailoring and rag peddling to this trade.

Yet, in , picket lines were attacked by goons, Litwak was severely beaten several times, once dragging himself to the line; he was arrested and joined in jail by Jimmy Hoffa, who made sure Litwak was not beaten or killed. The turmoil was typical of the early days of union organizing in Detroit, but with added emotional trauma in this case: although no charges were brought, it was clear that Jewish owners or their surrogates had hired Jewish hoodlums from the remnants of the notorious Jewish Purple Gang, to beat and break Jewish workers and their union.

This period witnessed a growth in prosperity among the Jews of Detroit, and increasing mobility characterized by a steady move to the suburbs. The community's religious institutions were consolidated: by there were 23 Orthodox, six Conservative, four Reform, and one humanistic congregation founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine, the Birmingham Temple, in the Detroit metropolitan area.

A constant of Detroit Jewish history has been movement. By the time Jews began to move into Oak Park, the first suburb northwest of Detroit, beginning around , an organized or identifiable Jewish presence in Detroit had existed for a hundred years. In that century, perhaps nothing characterized that people more than its movement — mytho-biblical in its quick, successive generational wanderings and in its group cohesion. It seemed that Jews moved en masse about every 20—30 not to say 40 years.

Morris Waldman, Federation's first executive director, who arrived in , observing the rapid evacuation of the Hastings neighborhood in favor of the Westminster-Oakland area, called the phenomenon a hegira , a mass migration. The pattern of Jewish settlement in Detroit from to was a northwest exodus: from Lower Hastings to Upper Hastings, to Oakland between and , to the Twlefth Street and Dexter areas just west of Oakland, to Northwest Detroit, from the late s to the s.

After World War ii, Oak Park, then Southfield became the greener pastures, where Jews could buy the typical brick ranch houses, in the midst of trees and open spaces, followed quickly by West Bloomfield and Farmington Hills. When correlated with generational, socio-economic upward mobility, such a prolonged series of moves seems to have sprung, in part, from a desire for larger homes, more space, and the pursuit of symbols of economic success. It mirrored the non-Jewish, upwardly mobile middle class abandonment of the central cities for the suburbs, the American dream of the s: suburban life.

As each generation of Jews became more educated, more successful, more American, and more assimilated, the wish to demonstrate all those features strengthened and took the form of new and bigger or better homes in new neighborhoods. Yet more than a quest for symbols of educational and economic achievement accounts for the regular relocation of whole communities.

Federation surveys implied that, for all their tolerance, many Jews retained stereotypic views of African Americans and feared living in the same neighborhoods, although they often supported civil rights and defended blacks in that arena. In the Hastings Street neighborhood, long after Jews had moved their residences from there, they retained businesses. In the s, s, and s often only Jewish merchants would allow blacks to shop in their stores.

And only Jews would sell their businesses to blacks as white, non-Jewish racists grew more hostile to black neighbors — and to Jewish neighbors or businessmen. As black workers moved into Detroit, they occupied the areas in which Jews lived, and fears or prejudices on both sides fostered the Jewish moves. A prominent Jewish community leader was Max M. As war seemed imminent in the Middle East in , Fisher was flown from his yacht in the Aegean where he was vacationing with Henry Ford ii to Tel Aviv , where he learned of Israel's needs and strategies.

Jewish Detroit had never been more united. As Jewish professional success grew, and vestiges of anti-Jewish discrimination remained, Jews responded with specific actions. When Jewish physicians were blocked from practicing at some Detroit hospitals, Sinai Hospital was created; Jewish lawyers led the way in ending "restrictive covenants" in the Detroit metropolitan area and in reforming the civil rights codes in the Michigan Constitution.

Jews were to be found in every area of the city's economic life, although despite the prominence of automobile manufacturing in Detroit, few Jews are employed in this industry. The occupational sphere where Jews have predominated is the waste industry, continuing their control of it from the s.

By the late s almost 55 percent of those Jews who were employed could be classed in the manager or proprietor class. By almost 25 percent of the Jewish working force was in the professions, while 73 percent were white-collar workers. Less than 10 per cent of the Jewish population were blue-collar workers. Sander's brother, Carl, has served three terms in the U. Senate and Debbie Stabenow is Michigan's other senator Among noted civic leaders have been David A.

Detroit Jews have a distinguished record as jurists at the state and national level. Henry M. Jerome Bronson and Charles Levin, judges of the state court of appeals , and Avern Cohn, a federal judge. Jews of Detroit also play a prominent part in the cultural life of the city. When the Detroit Symphony Orchestra was organized in , Ossip Gabrilowitsch became the principal conductor.

He filled the post until his death in when Victor Kolar succeeded him. Mischa Mischakoff was concertmaster. Karl Haas was director of fine arts of radio station wjr and president of the Interlochen Arts Academy, a position then held by Robert Luby; concert pianist Mischa Kottler was director of music at radio station wwj; Harry Weinberg hosted a long-lived Yiddish Radio Hour; Littman's People's Theatre featured everything from high drama with leading Yiddish speaking actors to burlesque.

Feinberg d. Detroit's Jewish population remains a diverse and significant part of the city's culture.


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Catlin, Story of Detroit ; J. Miller, Detroit Yiddish Theater, — ; I. Sklare ed. Robison ed. Glazer, Detroit ; J. Levin Cantor, Jews in Michigan ; N. Signs of Detroit's revitalization are particularly apparent in the downtown district. The People Mover, an elevated computerized rail transit system, features 13 stations with some of the most impressive publicly commissioned works of art in the country, all viewable from the train cars.

Hart Plaza, named in honor of the late Senator Philip A. Hart, stands adjacent to Detroit's most visible symbol of renewal — the recently renovated Renaissance Center, headquarters of General Motors. Hart Plaza is the center of many downtown festivals, parades, and the Freedom Festival fireworks, and includes the Dodge Memorial Fountain, designed by sculptor Isamu Noguchi. Nearby, at the foot of Woodward Avenue, sits Robert Graham's sculpture The Fist, commemorating fighter Joe Louis and considered the city's most controversial piece of art. Another more conventional statue of Joe Louis stands inside the Cobo Hall Convention Center, where a museum dedicated to the boxer's life is open to the public on weekends.

During its heyday in the post- World War I s, Detroit saw the construction of several high-rises built in ornate Art Deco style. Not all of those buildings are still standing, but those that are include the Penobscot, Guardian, and Buhl buildings downtown, as well as the original General Motors and Fisher buildings further uptown, and several magnificent theaters, including the Fox, the Fisher, the Masonic Temple, and Orchestra Hall.

Just west of downtown, the Ambassador Bridge, the world's longest international suspension bridge built in , spans the Detroit River and connects Detroit to Windsor, Ontario , a small Canadian city with a casino and charming Italian and Chinese neighborhoods. The Detroit Zoo in Royal Oak was the first zoo in the United States to make extensive use of barless exhibits; the zoo is home to more than 1, animals representing different species.

The new "Arctic Ring of Life" exhibit displays several polar bears, arctic foxes, seals, and sea lions in a massive simulated arctic tundra environment. In the zoo opened the National Amphibian Conservation Center to educate and provide research facilities on amphibians. The "Chimps of Harambee" exhibit covers four acres of naturalistic habitat. Other popular exhibits are the penguinarium, reptile house, free-flying aviary, butterfly garden, and giraffe house.

Belle Isle, located in the Detroit River two miles from downtown, was purchased from the Chippewa and Ottawa native Americans and was landscaped as a 1,acre city park in by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Cranbrook Institute of Science is a natural history museum and planetarium located north of the city in Bloomfield Hills. The Detroit area is graced by a number of mansions built by automobile industrialists that are now open to the public. Meadow Brook Hall, a room mansion on a 1,acre estate on the campus of Oakland University in Rochester, was built by auto baron John Dodge in Henry Ford 's final home, the room Fairlane, is located on the University of Michigan 's Dearborn campus.

Clair in Grosse Pointe Shores on a acre estate, is built with an authentic Cotswold stone roof and leaded glass windows with heraldic inserts. The Fisher mansion on the Detroit River features original Eastern art works, Italian Renaissance and vintage Hollywood architecture, and more than ounces of pure gold and silver leaf on the ceilings and moldings. The International Institute of Metropolitan Detroit is an agency for the foreign-born founded by the Young Women's Christian Association YWCA in , with a "gallery of nations" featuring the arts and crafts of 43 nations.

The Detroit Symphony, one of the country's few orchestras with international stature, plays a September-to-May season of classical and pops concerts at Orchestra Hall as well as a summer season at Meadow Brook, an outdoor amphitheater in Rochester. While Maestro Neeme Jarvi planned to step down as Conductor in , a worldwide search for his successor was underway; meanwhile, famed violinist Itzhak Perlman continues his tenure as principal guest conductor with the Symphony. Michigan Opera Theatre produces classical grand opera in seasons at the magnificently restored Detroit Opera House, with two productions each fall and three more each spring.

In the Opera premiered one of the most anticipated new American operas in decades when Margaret Garner was performed with a cast of international stars, including Denyce Graves. The opera was based on author Toni Morrison 's classic novel Beloved, with the author also penning the libretto. Detroit supports an active theater community; performances are staged in some of the finest restored facilities in the country. The Attic Theatre presents the best of the new and the offbeat. The intimate Gem and Century theaters offer Broadway -style shows, comedy acts, and other productions in cabaret style seating.

The Fox Theatre, the largest movie theater in the United States , was designed by movie palace architect C. Howard Crane in ; it has undergone renovation to preserve its "Siamese Byzantine" interior featuring Far Eastern, Egyptian, Babylonian, and Indian themes, and is the site of performing arts events.

Another opulent theater facility is the Fisher Theatre, designed by Albert Kahn ; it sponsors Broadway shows. Meadow Brook Theatre at Oakland University presents an eight-play season of musicals, classics plays, and new works. Wayne State University's Hilberry Theatre produces classic drama performed by graduate student actors; undergraduate productions are staged at the Bonstelle Theatre. The Cranbrook Performing Arts Theatre in Bloomfield Hills offers orchestra, band, and vocal concerts, in addition to dance and drama, by high school students at the Cranbrook Educational Community.

The Detroit Institute of Arts, established in , is the nation's fifth-largest fine arts museum. Art treasures from throughout the world and covering a historical period of 5, years are housed in galleries. The museum's collection has literally outgrown its space and many major works had to be warehoused; a major renovation and expansion is set to be completed in , adding 77, square feet of additional exhibit space. Among the institute's most prized holdings is the four-wall mural Detroit Industry by Diego Rivera. Also known worldwide is the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Dearborn, which Henry Ford founded in to document America's growth from a rural to an industrial society by exhibiting objects from the nation's material culture.

Henry Ford Museum is a fourteen-acre complex housing major collections in transportation, industry, agriculture, and the domestic arts; the museum features one of the world's most comprehensive car collections, including the vehicle President John F. Kennedy was traveling in when he was assassinated. Greenfield Village , a acre outdoor museum, gathers on a single site one of the largest collections of historic American homes, work-places, and communities; among them are Thomas Edison's Menlo Park laboratory, the Wright brothers ' bicycle shop, and Noah Webster 's Connecticut home.

The Detroit Historical Museum in the Detroit Cultural Center was founded in as an archive of the history and customs of Detroiters. The museum's collection of more than , urban historical artifacts is one of the largest such collections in the country. An educational unit of the Detroit Public Schools, the Children's Museum displays collections that focus on African musical instruments , the Inuit, and American folk crafts and toys. The Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History is dedicated to the contributions of African Americans in the humanities and creative arts.

The Graystone International Jazz Museum preserves the city's jazz history. The International Freedom Festival, begun in , is a summer celebration of the friendship between Canada and the United States ; it attracts more than 3 million people and culminates in a large fireworks display on the Detroit River. Also in July at Greenfield Village is the Fire Engine Muster with hand-pulled rigs and horse-drawn pumpers in a re-creation of early fire-fighting techniques. The Montreux Detroit Jazz Festival over Labor Day weekend brings together over international artists and local jazz musicians in the nation's largest free jazz festival.

A major event in November is America's Thanksgiving Day Parade, which presents 20 floats, 15 helium balloons, 25 marching bands, more than 1, costumed marchers, and Santa Claus in one of the nation's largest Thanksgiving Day parades; televised coverage of the parade is broadcast around the country.

Christmas at Greenfield Village in December features Christmas past and present at more than two dozen historic village sites, with yuletide meals cooked at open hearths. Detroit's automotive era is evoked at numerous local events. The North American International Auto Show is among the most important auto shows in the world and is held each January. Autorama comes to Michigan each March and features classic and custom hot rods. The Concours d'Elegance, an exhibition of the world's finest classic cars, is held at Meadow Brook Hall in the summer.

And the Woodward Dream Cruise bills itself as the world's largest one-day celebration of car culture, attracting over 1. Cruisers travel a mile, spectator lined section of Woodward Avenue through nine communities on the third Saturday in August, though cruising often begins several days before the official event. A tough, gritty, blue-collar town throughout much of its history, Detroit identifies itself through nothing else — except perhaps its rich musical legacy — as it does its passion for the local sports franchises.

Detroit supports professional franchises in all the major sports, and each team has a rich tradition of all-time great players, oddball characters, and world championships. The Red Wings have won hockey's fabled Stanley Cup 10 times, including 3 between the years The Detroit Tigers, the city's oldest team, began play in the American League of Major League Baseball in ; a few years later the club acquired Ty Cobb , who played 22 years in a Detroit uniform and became one of the most legendary players in the history of the game.

The club has won four World Series titles, the latest in In the team moved its home field to downtown Detroit, adjacent to Comerica Park. Club attendance has led the NBA from , and the Pistons defeated the Los Angeles Lakers in five games to win the World Championship, the third title in club history. The foot wide pathway, expected to be completed by , will have landscaping, lighting, benches, picnic areas, and paved trails for cyclists, skaters, and walkers, and will provide views of the river, its nonstop boating and freighter traffic, and the city of Windsor, Ontario.

In addition to this project, the Detroit Department of Parks and Recreation oversees 6, acres of park land. More than city parks contain a total of baseball diamonds, tennis courses, six golf courses, and two marinas.


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Detroit has developed four smaller downtown riverfront parks, and there are miles of paved walkways for walking, running, and biking on Belle Isle. Outdoor sports such as swimming, boating, hiking, fishing, and skating are available at metropolitan parks. There are public golf courses and six ski resorts in the Detroit region. Runners of the Detroit International Marathon cross borders twice — taking in stunning views on the Ambassador Bridge on the way to Windsor and then hoofing it through the tunnel on the way back to Detroit — as they tour both Detroit and Windsor's downtowns over Detroit offers unique shopping venues like Eastern Market, the largest flower-bedding market in the world and an outlet for fresh meats and produce from neighboring states and Canada.

Adjacent to Eastern Market are specialty stores selling fresh meat, poultry, gourmet foods, and wines. Pewabic Pottery, founded in , continues to produce handcrafted vessels and architectural tiles for public and private installations from its East Jefferson factory and gallery. There are numerous shops and restaurants throughout the sprawling Renaissance Center complex, and at the Millender Center directly across Jefferson.

Greektown and International Center, a popular Detroit tourist spot, features bakeries, restaurants, bars, and coffee-houses. Bricktown, located in a refurbished sector of downtown, is anchored by an art gallery selling Oriental vases, Persian rugs, and antique furniture. Metropolitan Detroit offers about shopping centers of at least , square feet. Vibrant downtown shopping areas can be found in communities like Birmingham, Grosse Pointe, and Royal Oak.

Also in the Renaissance Center, Seldom Blues has fine dining, riverfront views, and a lively late-night club scene with some of the best jazz in the city. At the corner of Michigan and Lafayette, the side-by-side Lafayette Coney Island and American Coney Island have been Detroit legend for decades, especially for late-night after-hours crowds, serving up their unique hot dogs on steamed buns with chili, onions, and mustard, plus chili fries, and even a cold beer. To the east of the city, Grosse Pointe has several excellent restaurants, including The Hill; in the northern suburbs the Lark in West Bloomfield and Tribute in Farmington Hills are consistently given five-star ratings by international publications.

Detroit is home to the largest Arab population outside of the Middle East , and many of those immigrants live in Dearborn where a number of authentic Lebanese and Syrian restaurants thrive. Detroit is home to some outstanding Italian restaurants; Creole, Japanese, Chinese, Ethiopian, Thai, Indian, and Turkish cuisine are included among the other ethnic choices.

Fort St. Automobile manufacturing continues to be a primary force in the Detroit economy, and Detroit is the nation's only older city that is home to a state-of-the-art auto assembly plant. In recent years, however, dependence on the auto industry has decreased — the city lost 39 percent of its manufacturing jobs in the s — while the services sector has increased.

Still, the automobile rules, and as go auto sales, so goes the Detroit area economy. While manufacturing has globalized, virtually all of the key engineering, administrative, and testing functions of the Big Three take place in the Detroit area, employing thousands of highly-skilled and well-paid workers. Most of the world's suppliers of auto parts, such as Delphi and Guardian Industries are also located in Detroit, and advertising firms such as Campbell-Ewald, BBDO, and McCann-Erickson, do millions of dollars in annual business with the large automakers.

There is also a budding industry growing up around firms researching hydrogen fuel cells and other non-petroleum power generating technologies that may drive the automobiles of the future. More than 75 percent of the labor force is employed in non-manufacturing jobs in such areas as research and development; accounting, law, and financial services; computer services; and personnel and clerical support.

The Henry Ford Health System is the sixth largest employer in the state and is a major research center. Detroit ranks among the five major financial centers in the United States ; offices of all the "Big Eight" accounting firms are also located there. Metropolitan Detroit is the world headquarters for General Motors Corp. Oakland County, one of the country's wealthiest counties and directly north of the city, promotes its Auburn Hills area as "Automation Alley" due to the large number of robotics firms that have located there in recent years. Items and goods produced: automobiles and automobile products, gray iron, machine tools and fixtures, foundry products, paints, varnishes, lacquers, chemicals, pleasure boats, paper and twine, air conditioning equipment, aircraft bearings and cushions, bolts, screws, nuts, boilers, tanks, ball bearings, tools, steel plates, flues and tubes, rubber goods, non-electrical machinery and automation equipment in pharmaceuticals, rubber products, synthetic resins, computer software, and robotics equipment and technology.

Revitalization of Detroit's downtown and neighborhoods is a top priority for city leaders. The Mayor's Office of Neighborhood Commercial Revitalization offers help via grants to community organizations operating or opening shops in city neighborhoods. Parts of Detroit are designated Michigan Renaissance Zones, which are virtually tax free for any business or resident presently in or moving there. Detroit is one of only five cities nationwide designated a federal empowerment zone.

Businesses in the Other incentives on the state level include tax abatements, tax-exempt revenue bonds, public loans and grants. The state administers an award-winning brownfield redevelopment program, community development block grants, long-term fixed rated financing for small and medium-sized businesses, and more. Several outstanding nonprofit organizations also maintain job training facilities, including Goodwill Detroit and Focus:HOPE, a now-legendary Detroit organization founded by a Catholic priest and other community leaders in the aftermath of the devastating riots.

The center provides training in everything from basic reading to high-technology machining and computer-aided design. Michigan offers a coordinated job training system using federal, state, and local resources to provide a highly productive and trained workforce. Grants can provide funding for activities that increase worker productivity.

The training itself is done through the institution of the company's choice. Free recruitment and screening services are available for new and expanding employers through the Michigan Employment Security Administration's job service and also through several local school districts. Michigan Economic Development Corp. MEDC also administers Michigan Economic Growth Authority grants, which award credits against Michigan's single business tax to new or expanding businesses.

While Detroit continues to experience population loss similar to other large industrial cities, significant incentives such as the availability of inexpensive land and federal empowerment zone money have led to a development boom over the last decade. Since the late s and the administration of former Mayor Dennis W. So many projects were announced that in Site Selection magazine named Detroit its number one metropolitan area for business development for the third consecutive year. Detroit attracted 1, new or expanded facilities that year, almost double the nearest competitor, Chicago.

Further south, Wayne State University broke ground on an expansion of its acre Detroit campus by establishing a research and technology park amid an evolving residential and office district. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra also got into the action, with a privately funded renovation of Orchestra Hall on Woodward, along with construction of the adjacent Max M. Fisher Music Center, a new seat recital hall, and a multi-million dollar, state-of-the-art music education center. Detroit is a major international market. Detroit is adjacent to Windsor, Ontario , Canada , and more foreign trade passes through the port than any other in the United States.

Lawrence Seaway System. The Port is comprised of seven privately-owned terminals with thirteen berths on the Detroit and Rouge Rivers. All types of cargo can be processed through port facilities; in cargo volume totaled more than 17 million tons. Service is provided by four tug and barge lines as well as two auxiliary companies, one of which operates a mail boat that is the only boat in the United States with its own zip code.

The tremendous amount of goods produced in Detroit requires a vast distribution system relying not just on the waterways, but also rail and truck carriers. More than motor freight carriers use Greater Detroit's extensive highway system to transport goods to points throughout the United States and Canada. Trucking service is coordinated with that provided by the four rail lines maintaining facilities in Detroit. Despite the efforts of Governor Jennifer Granholm to maintain the state's manufacturing base and recruit new companies to Michigan, Michigan's unemployment rate of 7.

Reflecting a nationwide trend, the biggest loss of jobs was in the generally high-paying manufacturing sector. In addition, the nation's deep recession following the World Trade Center attack brought deep job cuts and layoffs in the automotive industry; not surprisingly Detroit fared even worse, and in the jobless rate in the city was at 8. Much of an anticipated rebound in the region's economy and job growth the second half of the decade was expected to come in the high-growth regions of Oakland County to the north of Detroit , Macomb County northeast , and Washtenaw County and greater Ann Arbor to the west.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Detroit metropolitan area labor force, annual average:. A worldwide survey conducted by Mercer Human Resource Consulting ranked Detroit the 16th costliest American city to live in, and the st most expensive worldwide. The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Detroit area. State income tax rate: 3. State sales tax rate: 6. Local income tax rate: 3. Local sales tax rate: None. In July , Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his party landed at a riverbank site chosen because the narrow strait there seemed strategically situated for protecting French fur trading interests in the Great Lakes.

The river was called d'Etroit, a French word meaning "strait. Cadillac named the settlement "ville d'etroit," or city of the strait. Eventually the name was simplified to Detroit. The control of Detroit changed hands three times during the eighteenth century. At the conclusion of the French and Indian War, the resulting treaty specified the surrender of Detroit to Great Britain. Under Henry Hamilton, the settlement's British governor, armies of Native Americans were encouraged to scalp frontier settlers for rewards, earning Hamilton the sobriquet, "Hair Buyer of Detroit.

At the end of the American Revolution , the United States claimed lands west of the Alleghenies by treaty, but the British refused to leave Detroit and other western forts, encouraging allied tribes to attack settlers. During the War of , General William Hull turned Detroit's fort over to the British without a fight, thus making Detroit the only major American city ever to be occupied by a foreign power. The United States regained control of the settlement in following Oliver H.

Perry's victory in the Battle of Lake Erie. Detroit was incorporated as a town in and as a city in In Detroit was selected the capital of the newly created Michigan territory. On June 11, , a fire totally destroyed the city, and while all residents survived, wood structures were reduced to ashes. Local Catholic leader Father Gabriel Richard observed at the time, "Speramus meliora; resurget cineribus We hope for better things; it will arise from the ashes.

Augustus B. Woodward, one of the new territory's judges, awarded a larger piece of land to each citizen who had lost his home.

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As Detroit grew, additional hexagons could be added parallel to the original one. This idea was adopted then eventually abandoned and a grid street pattern was superimposed over the hexagonal design. Michigan gained state-hood in ; ten years later, fearing Detroit's vulnerability to foreign invasion, the young legislature relocated Michigan's capital from Detroit to Lansing. Detroit's early economic development was spurred by a combination of factors: the opening of the Erie Canal in , the city's Great Lakes location, the increasing use of rail transport, the growing lumber and flour-milling industries, and the availability of a skilled labor force.