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Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. Magnae saepe res non ita magnis 15 copiis sunt gestae, sed profecto numquam tam ab tenui initio tantae opes sunt profligatae. Nam duodecim adulescentuli coierunt ex iis qui exsilio erant multati, cum omnino non essent amplius centum, qui tanto se offerrent periculo. Qua pau- 20 4 citate perculsa est Lacedaemoniorunj potentia. Hi enim non magis adversariorum factioni quam Spar- tanis eo tempore bellum intulerunt, qui principes erant totius Graeciae : quorum imperi maiestas, neque ita multo post, Leuctrica piigna ab hoc in- 25 5 itio perculsa concidit.

Illi igitur duodecim, qu5rum 7 exSrsi sumus, incepimus. Qui cum tempore ipso qu5 studuerant, pervenis- 5 sent, domum Chardnis deverterunt, a quo et tempus et dies erat datus. Nam magistratuum Thebanorum statim ad 10 aures pervenit exsules in urbem venisse. Id ill! Accessit etiam quod magis aperiret eorum dementiam.

Ad- lata est enim epistula Athenis ab Archino iini ex 15 his, Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum The- bis obtinebat, in qua omnia de profectione eorum perscripta erant. Quibus rebus confectis, volgo ad arma libertatemque vocato, non solum qui in urbe erant, sed etiam undique ex agris concurrerunt, praesidium Lacedaemoniorum 25 ex arce pepulerunt, patriam obsidione liberarunt, 5 studuerant, voluerant.

Itaque haec liberatarum The- 5 barum propria laus est Pelopidae, ceterae fere 2 communes cum Epamin5nda. Namque in Leuctrica pugna imperatore Epaminonda hie fuit dux delec- tae manus, quae prima phalangem pr5stravit Laco- 3 num. Omnibus praeterea periculis adfuit sicut, 10 Spartam cum oppugnavit, alterum tenuit cornu , qu5que Messena celerius restitueretur, legatus in Persas est profectus. Denique haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita ut proxiraa esset Epaminondae.

Nam et initio, sicut ostendimus, exsul patria ca- ruit, et cum Thessaliam in potestatem Thebanorum cuperet redigere legationisque iure satis tectum se arbitraretur, quod apud omnes gentes sanctum esse 20 consuesset, a tyranno Alexandre Pheraeo simul cum Ismenia comprehensus in vincla coniectus est. Post id factum numquam animo placari potuit in eum, a quo erat violatus. Itaque 25 persuasit Thebanis ut subsidio Thessaliae profici- 3 turbidS, pertculosd ; docuimus, dtximus.

Cuius belli cum ei summa esset data eoque cum exercitu pro- fectus esset, non dubitavit, simul ac conspexit 4 hostem, confligere. In quo proeli5 Alexandrum ut animadvertit, incensus ira equum in eum con- 5 citavit proculque digressus a suis coniectu telorum confossus concidit. Atque hoc secunda victoria accidit : nam iam inclinatae erant tyrannorum co- 5 piae.

Quo facto omnes Thessaliae civitates inter- fectum Pelopidam coronis aureis et statuis aeneis 10 liberosque eius multo agio donarunt. Hie primum de regno cum Leotychide, fratris filio, habuit contentionem. Mos erat enim a maioribus 5 Lacedaemoniis traditus ut duos haberent semper reges, nomine magis quam imperi5, ex duabus fa- miliis Procli et Eurysthenis, qui principes ex pr5- 3 genie Herculis Spartae reges fuerunt. Horum ex altera in alterius familiae locum fieri non licebat : 10 ita utraque suum retinebat ordinem.

Primum ratio habebatur qui maximus natu esset ex liberis eius qui regnans decessisset ; sin is virilem sexum non reliquisset, tum deligebatur qui proximus esset pro- 4 pinquitate. Mortuus erat Agis rex, f rater Agesilai : 1 5 filium reliquerat Leotychidem. Quem ille natum non agnorat, eundem moriens suum esse dixerat. Is de honore regni cum Agesilao, patruo suo, con- 6 tendit, neque id quod petivit, consecutus est. Lysandro suffragante, homine, ut ostendimus supra, factioso et iis temporibus potente, Agesilaus ante- latus est.

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Namque fama exierat Artaxerxen comparare classes pedestresque exereitus, qu5s in 2 Graeciam mitteret. Data potestate tanta celeritate usus est ut prius in Asiam cum copiis pervenerit 10 quam regii satrapae eum scirent prefect um. Quo factum est ut omnes imparatos imprudentesque 3 offenderet.


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Id ut cogndvit Tissaphernes, qui sum- mum imperium tum inter praefectos habebat regies, indutias a Lacone petivit, simulans se dare operam, 15 ut Lacedaemoniis cum rege con venire t, re autem vera ad copias comparandas, easque impetravit 4 trimestres. Id etsi sentiebat Laco, tamen iusiurandum servabat multumque in eo se consequi dicebat, quod Tissaphernes periurio suo et homines suis rebus abalienaret et deos sibi iratos redderet, se autem conservata religione con- 25 firmare exercitum, cum animadverteret deum numen facere secum, hominesque sibi conciliari amiciores, 6 facerent, tnferrent.

At Agesilaus in Phrygiam se convertit eamque prius depopulatus est quam Tissaphernes usquam se moveret. Magna praeda militibus locupletatis 10 Ephssum hiematum exercitum reduxit atque ibi officinis armorum institutis magna industria bellum apparavit. Et quo studiosius armarentur insigni- usque ornarentur, praemia pr5posuit, quibus dona- rentur quorum egregia in ea re fuisset industria.

His igitur rebus effecit ut et ornatissimum 4 et exercitatissimum haberet exercitum. Huic cum tempus esset visum copias extrahere ex hiberna- 20 culis, vidit, si, quo esset iter facturus, palam pro- niintiasset, hostes non credituros aliasque regiones praesidiis occupaturos neque dubitaturos aliud eum 5 facturum ac pronuntiasset. Itaque cum ille Sardis iturum se dixisset, Tissaphernes eandem Cariam 25 defendendam putavit. In qu5 cum eum opinio I studgre, favere. Nam cum illo venisset, iam Agesilaus multis locis expugnatis magna erat 6 praeda potitus. Laco autem cum videret hostes equitatu superare, numquam in campo sui fecit 5 potestatem et iis locis manum conseruit quibus plus pedestres copiae valerent.

Pepulit erg5, quo tienscumque congressus est, multo maiores adver- sariorum c5pias et sic in Asia versatus est ut omnium opinione victor duceretur. In hoc non minus eius pietas suspi- 15 cienda est quam virtus bellica : qui cum victor! Ciiius exemplum 20 3 utinam imperatores nostri sequi voluissent! Sed illuc redeamus. Agesilaus opulentissimo regno praeposuit bonam existimationem mult5que glori- osius duxit, si institutis patriae paruisset, quam si 6 manum c5nseruit proelium commlsit. Hac igitur mente Helle- spontum copias traiecit tantaque usus est celeritate ut, quod iter Xerxes anno vertente confecerat, hie 5 transient triginta diebus.

Cum iam baud ita longe abesset a Peloponneso, obsistere ei conati sunt s Athenienses et Boeotii ceterique eorum socii apud 6 Coroneam ; quos omnes gravi proelid vicit. Huius victoriae vel maxima fuit laus quod, cum plerique ex fuga se in templum Minervae coniecissent quae- rereturque ab eo quid iis vellet fieri, etsi aliquot 10 vdlnera acceperat eo proelio et iratus videbatur omnibus qui adversus arma tulerant, tamen ante- 7 tulit irae religionem et eos vetuit violari.

Neque vero hoc solum in Graecia fecit, ut templa deorum sancta haberet, sed etiam apud barbaros summa 15 religidne omnia simulacra arasque conservavit. Quo ne proficisceretur, cum a plerisque ad exeundum premeretur, ut si de exitii divinaret, exire noluit. Idem, cum Epaminondas Spartam 15 oppugnaret essetque sine muris oppidum, talem se imperatorem praebuit ut eo tempore omnibus appa- ruerit, nisi ille fuisset, Spartam futuram non fuisse. Nam cum quidam adulescen- 20 tuli, hostium adventu perterriti, ad Theban5s trans- fugere vellent et locum extra urbem editum cepissent, Agesilaus, qui perniciosissimum fore videret, si ani- madversum esset quemquam ad hostes transfugere conari, cum suis eo venit atque, ut si bond animo 25 2 anpplicivLm f poenam.

Sic adulescentes simulata lauda- tione recuperavit et adiunctis de suis comitibus locum tutum reliquit. Namque illi aucti numero 5 e5rum qui expertes erant consili, commovere se non sunt ausi e5que libentius, quod latere arbitra- bantur quae cogitaverant. Atque in hoc illud in primis fuit admira- bile, cum maxima munera ei ab regibus ac dynastis civitatibusque conferrentur, quod nihil umquam do- mum suam contulit, nihil de victu, nihil de vestitu 4 Lacdnum mutavit. Domo eadem fuit contentus 20 qua Eurysthenes, progenitor maiorum suorum, fue- rat usus; quam qui intrarat, nullum signum libidi- nis, nullum luxuriae videre poterat, contra ea plurima patientiae atque abstinentiae.

Sic enim erat in- structa ut in nulla re differret ciiiusvis inopis atque 25 privati. Quae res etiam nonnullam adferebat deformitatem, atque ignoti, faciem eius cum intuerentur, contem- 5 nebant, qui autem virtutes n5verant, non poterant 2 admirari satis. Quod ei usu venit, cum annorum octoginta subsidio Tacho in Aegyptum iisset et in acta cum suis accubuisset sine tillo tecto stratum que haberet tale ut terra tecta esset stramentis neque 10 hue amplius quam pellis esset iniecta, eodemque comites omnes accubuissent vestitu humili atque obsolete, ut eorum ornatus non modo in his regem neminem significaret, sed homines n5n beatissimos 3 esse suspicionem praeberet.

Huius de adventu 15 fama cum ad regies esset perlata, celeriter munera eo cuiusque generis sunt adlata. His quaerentibus Agesilaum vix fides facta est unum esse ex iis qui 4 tum accubabant. Qui cum regis verbis quae attule- rant dedissent, ille praeter vitulinam et eiusmodi 20 genera obsoni, quae praesens tempus desiderabat, nihil accepit; unguenta, coronas secundamque men- 5 sam servis dispertiit, cetera referri iussit. Quo fact5 eum barbari magis etiam contempserunt, quod eum ignorantia bonarum reruna ilia potissi- 25 mum sumpsisse arbitrabantur.

I tribuendis, conferendis. Ibi eum amici, quo 5 Spartam facilius perferre possent, quod mel non habebant, cera circumfuderunt atque ita domum rettulerunt. Si verum est, quod nem5 dubitat, ut populus Ro- manus omnes gentes virtute superarit, non est in- fitiandum Hannibalem tant5 praestitisse ceteros imperatores prudentia, quanto populus Romanus 5 2 antecedat fortitudine cunctas nationes. Nam quo- tienscumque cum eo congressus est in Italia, sem- per discessit superior.

Quod nisi domi civium su5rum invidia debilitatus esset, Romanos videtur superare potuisse. Sed multotum obtrectatio de- 10 vicit unius virtutem. Nam ut omittam Philippum, quem absens hostem reddidit Romanis, omnium iis temporibus potentissimus rex Antiochus fuit. Hunc tanta cupiditate incendit bellandi ut 4 praestitisse, super dvisse- — 6 cunctas, omnes. Quae divina res dum conficiebatur, quae- sivit a me vellemne secum in castra proficisci.

Id 15 cum libenter accepissem atque ab e5 petere coepis- sem ne dubitaret ducere, turn ille, "Faciam," inquit, "si mihi fidem, quam postulo, dederis. Id ego iusiurandum patri datum usque ad banc aetatem ita conservavi ut nemini dubium esse debeat quin 6 reliquo tempore eadem mente sim futurus. Quare si quid amice de Romanis cogitabis, n5n impruden- 25 ter feceris, si me celaris ; cum quidem bellum para- 8 segregari, exdudl.

Id Karthaginem delatum publice 2 comprobatum est. Sic Hannibal minor quinque et viginti annis natus imperator factus proximo tri- ennio omnes gentes Hispaniae bello subegit, Sa- 10 guntum, foederatam civitatem, vi expugnavit, tres 3 exercitus maximos comparavit. Ex his unum in Africam misit, alterum cum Hasdrubale fratre in Hispania reliquit, tertium in Italiam secum duxit. Saltum Pyrenaeum transiit. Quacumque iter fecit, 15 cum omnibus incolis conflixit; neminem nisivictum 4 dimisit. Ad Alpes posteaquam venit, quae Italiam ab Gallia seiungunt, quas nemo umquam cum exerr citu ante eum praeter Herculem Graium transierat qu5 facto is hodie saltus Grains appellatur , Alpi- 20 cos conantes prohibere transitu concidit, loca pate- fecit, itinera muniit, effecit ut ea elephantus 5rnatus ire posset qua an tea unus homo inermis vix pote- rat repere.

Hac copias traduxit in Italiam que pervenit. Cum h5c eodem Clastidl apud Padum decemit sauciumque 2 inde ac fugatum dimittit. Tertio idem Scipi5 cum conlega Tiberi5 Longo apud Trebiam adversus eum 'venit. Cum iis manum conseruit ; utrosque profli- 5 gavit. Inde per Ligures Appenninum transiit, 3 petens Etruriam. Hoc itinere adeo gravi morbo adficitur oculorum ut postea numquam dextro aeque bene usus sit.

Qua valetudine cum etiamtum pre- meretur lecticaque ferretur, C. Flaminium consulem 10 apud Trasumenum cum exercitu insidiis circum- ventum occidit, neque multo post C. Centenium praetorem cum delecta manu saltus occupantem. Ibi obviam ei vene- runt duo consules, C. Terentius et L. Servilium Geminum, qui superiore anno fue- rat consul. In propinquis urbi montibus moratus est.

Cum aliquot ibi dies castra habuisset et Capuam reverteretur, Q. Fabius Maximus, dictator 2 R5manus, in agro Falernd ei se obiecit. Namque obducta nocte sar- menta in cornibus iuvencorum deligata incendit eiusque generis multitudinem magnam dispalatam immisit. Quo repentino obiecto visu tantum terrd- rem iniecit exercitui Romanorum ut egredi extra 5 3 vallum nemo sit ausus. Hanc post rem gestam non ita multis diebus M.

Full text of "Selected lives from Cornelius Nepos"

Minucium Rufum, magi- strum equitum pari ac dictatorem imperio, dolo pro- ductum in proelium fugavit. Tiberium Sempronium Gracchum, iterum consulem, in Lucanis absens in 10 insidias inductum sustulit. Claudium Marcel- lum, quinquies consulem, apud Venusiam pari modo 4 interfecit. Longum est omnia enumerare proelia. Quare hoc unum satis erit dictum, ex quo intellegi possit quantus ille f uerit : quamdiu in Italia f uit, 1 5 nemo ei in acie restitit, nem5 ad versus eum post Cannensem pugnam in campo castra posuit.

Scipionem, filium eius Scipionis quem ipse primo apud Rhodanum, iterum apud 20 2 Padum, tertio apud Trebiam fugarat. Cum hoc exhaustis iam patriae facultatibus cupivit imprae- sentiarum bellum componere, qu5 valentior postea congrederetur. In conloquium convenit : condici- 3 ones non convenerunt. Post id factum paucis 25 diebus apud Zamam cum eodem conflixit; pulsus- 5 egredi, extre.

In hac fuga Numidae, qui simul cum eo ex acie excesserant, insidiati sunt ei ; quos non solum effugit, sed etiam ipsos oppressit. Ha- 5 drumeti reliquos e fuga conlegit; novis dilectibus paucis diebus mult5s contraxit. Ille nihilo setius exercitui postea praefuit resque in 10 Africa gessit itemque Mago frater eius usque ad 2 P. Sulpicium C. Aurelium c5nsules. His enim magistratibus legati Karthaginienses Romam vene- runt, qui senatui populoque Rdmano gratias age- rent, quod cum iis pacem fecissent, ob eamque rem 15 corona aurea e5s donarent simulque peterent ut obsides e5rum Fregellis essent captivique redde- 3 rentur.

His ex senatus c5nsult5 responsum est : munus eorum gratum acceptumque esse ; obsides, quo loco rogarent, futures, captivos n5n remissuros, 20 quod Hannibalem, cdius opera susceptum bellum foret, inimicissimum nomini R6man5, etiam nunc cum imperio apud exercitum haberent itemque fra- 4 trem eius Magonem. Hoc response Karthagini- enses cognito Hannibalem domum et Magonem 25 revocarunt. Hue ut rediit, rex f actus est, post- quam imperator fuerat, ann5 secundo et vicesimo : I biduOi duobus diebus. In eo magistratu pari diligentia se Hannibal praebuit ac fuerat in bello.

Namque effecit ex novis vectigalibus non solum ut esset pecunia quae Romanis ex foedere penderetur, 5 sed etiam superesset quae in aerario rep5neretur. Claudio L. Furio consulibus, Roma le- gati Karthaginem vengrunt. Hos Hannibal ratus sui exposcendi gratia missos, priusquam iis senatus daretur, navem ascendit clam atque in Syriam ad 10 7 Antiochum profugit. Hac re palam facta Poeni naves duas, quae eum comprehenderent, si possent consequi, miserunt; bona eius publicarunt, domum a fundamentis disiecerunt, ipsum exsulem iudicarunt. Cornelio Q. Minuci5 consulibus, cum quinque navibus Africam accessit in finibus Cyrenaeorum, si forte Karthaginienses ad bellum Antiochi spe fidiiciaque inducerentur, cui iam persuaserat ut cum exercitibus in Italiam proficisceretur.

Hue 20 2 Magonem fratrem excivit. Id ubi Poeni rescive- runt, Mag5nem eadem qua fratrem absentem adfe- cerunt poena. Illi desperatis rebus cum solvissent naves ac vela ventis dedissent, Hannibal ad Anti- ochum pervenit. De Magonis interitu duplex me- 25 moria prodita est : namque alii naufragio, alii a II palam facta, nuntidtd.

Antiochus autem, si tarn in gerendo bello consiliis eius parere voluisset quam in suscipiendo instituerat, propius Tiberi quam Thermopylis de summa imperi dimicasset. Quern etsi multa stulte s 4 conari videbat, tamen nulla deseruit in re. Prae- fuit paucis navibus, quas ex Syria iussus erat in Asiam ducere, iisque adversus Rhodiorum classem in Pamphylid mari conflixit.

Qu5 cum multitudine adversariorum sui superarentur, ipse, quo cornu rem 10 gessit, fuit superior. Vidit autem vir omnium callidissimus 15 in magno se fore periculo, nisi quid providisset, propter avaritiam Cretensium : magnam enim secum pecuniam portabat, de qua sciebat exisse famam. Amphoras compltires complet plumbo, summas operit auro et argento. His in errdrem inductis, statuas aeneas, quas secum portabat, omni sua pecunia complet easque in pro- 4 patulo domi abicit. Gortynii templum magna cura 25 custodiunt, non tam a ceteris quam ab Hannibale, ne ille inscientibus iis tolleret secumque duceret.

Apud quem eodem animo fuit erga Italiam, neque aliud quicquam egit quam regem armavit et exercuit 2 adversus Romanes.

Quem cum videret domesticis 5 opibus minus esse robustum, conciliabat ceteros reges, adiungebat bellicosas nationes. Dissidebat ab eo Pergamenus rex Eumenes, Romanis amicissi- mus, bellumque inter eos gerebatur et mari et terra; 3 quo magis cupiebat eum Hannibal opprimi. Sed lo utrobique Eumenes plus valebat propter R5mano- rum societatem ; quem si removisset, faciliora sibi - cetera fore arbitrabatur.

Ad hunc interficiendum 4 talem iniit rationem. Classe paucis diebus erant decreturi. Superabatur navium multitudine ; dolo 1 5 erat pugnandum, cum par non esset armis. Im- peravit quam plurimas venenatas serpentes vivas 5 conligi easque in vasa fictilia conici. Harum cum effecisset magnam multitudinem, die ipso qu5 factu- rus erat navale proelium, classiarios convocat iisque 20 praecipit omnes ut in unam Eumenis regis concur- rant navem, a ceteris tantum satis habeant se de- fen dere.

Id illos facile serpen tium multitudine 6 consectituros. Rex autem in qua nave veheretur, ut scirent, se facturum ; quem si aut cepissent aut 25 interfecissent, magno iis pollicetur praemid fore. Quarum acie constituta, priusquam signum pugnae daretur, Hannibal, ut palam faceret suis quo loco Eumenes esset, tabel- 2 larium in scapha cum cadticeo mittit.

Qui ubi ad 5 naves adversariorum pervenit epistulamque osten- dens se regem professus est quaerere, statim ad Eumenem deductus est, quod nemo dubitabat quin aliquid de pace esset scriptum. Tabellarius, ducis nave declarata suis, eodem unde erat egressus, se 10 3 recepit. At Eumenes soluta epistula nihil in ea repperit nisi quae ad inridendum eum pertinerent. Cuius etsi causam mirabatur neque reperiebat, ta- men proelium statim committere non dubitavit. Quorum vim rex cum sustinere non posset, fuga salutem petit ; quam consecutus non esset, nisi intra sua praesidia se recepisset, quae in proximo litore erant conlocata.

Quae iacta initio risum pugnantibus concitarunt neque 6 quare id fieret poterat intellegi. Postquam autem naves suas oppletas conspexerunt serpentibus, nova 25 re perterriti, cum quid potissimum vitarent non 10 declarata, indicdtd. Sic Hannibal consilio arma Pergamendrum superavit, neque turn s5lum, sed saepe alias pedestribus copiis pari prudentia pepu- lit adversari5s.

Patres 10 conscript! His Prusia negare ausus n5n est; illud 15 recusavit, ne id a se fieri postularent, quod adver- sus ius hospiti esset ; ipsi, si possent, comprehende- rent : locum ubi esset, facile inventuros. Hannibal enim uno loco se tenebat in castello, quod ei a rege datum erat muneri, idque sic aedificarat ut in om- 20 nibus partibus aedifici exitiis haberet, scilicet verfins 4 ne usii veniret quod accidit.

Hue cum legati R5- man5rum venissent ac multitudine domum eius cir- cumdedissent, puer ab ianua prospiciens Hannibali dixit plures praeter c5nsuetudinem armatos apparere. Puer cum celeriter quid esset renun- tiasset omnesque exitus occupat5s ostendisset, sensit id non fortuito factum, sed se peti neque sibi dititius vitam esse retinendam. Quam ne alien o arbitrio dimitteret, memor pristinarum virtutum venenum, 5 quod semper secum habere consuerat, sumpsit. Quibus consulibus interierit, n5n convenit. Namque Atti- cus M.

Claudio Marcello Q. Fabio Labeone con- 10 sulibus mortuum in annali suo scriptum reliquit, at Polybius L. Aemilio Paulo Cn. Baebio Tamphilo, Sulpicius autem Blitho P. Cornelio Cethego M. Atque hic tantus vir tantisque bellis districtus ndnnihil temporis tribuit litteris. Manli Vulsonis 3 in Asia rebus gestis. Huius belli gesta multi me- moriae prodiderunt, sed ex his duo, qui cum eo in castris fuerunt simulque vixerunt quamdiu fortuna 20 passa est, Silenus et Sosilus Lacedaemonius.

At- que hoc Sosilo Hannibal litterarum Graecarum usus est doctore. On the way he touches at Lemnos, and is made sport of by the Lemnians 1. He takes possession of the Chersonesus, and brings Lemnos under the power of Athens 2. Left with others by Darius the Persian in charge of the bridge over the Ister, while the king invades Scythia, he forms a plan for freeing the Greeks from Persian sway, but is thwarted by Histiaeus 3. Darius makes war upon the Greeks. Miltiades induces the Athenians to take the field against the Persians 4. He defeats these in battle at Marathon, before the arrival of the Lacedaemonians 5.

His reward for the victory 6. He sails with a fleet to subdue the Cyclades, but returns with nothing accomplished. Therefore he is condemned for treason, and dies in prison 7. The true reason for his conviction and sen- tence 8. Miltiades, Cim5nis filius, Atheniensis: these words serve as a title, but are constructed with the first sentence. In many of the " Lives " Nepos disconnects the first few words from what follows and gives us a title in quite modern fashion. Cimonis filius : a mistake on Nepos' part, who confounds the two men, uncle and nephew, bearing the same name.

The' founder of the colony went to the Chersonesus some forty years before the hero of Marathon, who was the son of Cimon. The younger Miltiades succeeded his brother Stesagoras, who had succeeded the elder Miitiades, their uncle. I I Miltiades I.

Cimon I. I Stesagoras II. Miltiades II. I I Cimon II. See group MED-. NOTES; 81 6. This phrase, taken in connection with el aetAte above, would seem to mean that Miltiades, having acquitted himself worthily in the highest office in Athens, viz. Chersonesum : we should expect in or ad with this, but Nepos everywhere gives it the construction of names of towns. This, unmodified, always refers to the Thracian peninsula, which, stretching along the Hellespont, was a most important point for the Athenians to hold, since they had for many years before this carried on extensive commerce with the coasts of the Black Sea.

Read carefully group col-. I above. See group leg-. It probably is a gloss, 1. For details consult Classical Dictionary, under Miltiades. According to Hdt. Pythia : in the most ancient times Delphi, a chief seat of the worship of Apollo, was called Pytho, Apollo the Pytkius, and his priestess, the Pythia. She uttered the oracles while seated upon a tripod or three-legged stool ; but as the sounds she made were unintelligible to questioners, they were taken down by priests of the temple, and in the form of hexameter verse communicated to inquirers.

I and 8 , just before accessisset. The abl. Ut is frequently omitted after certain classes of verbs G. What would be the form of direct discourse? Lemnos was one day's sail southward from the lowest point of the Chersonesus. Athenis : abl. Prob- ably the word is dat. Do not confound with conligd, collect. So here had the rank of king.

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Perhaps this is a mistake, though it occurs once else- where in Nepos. We may consider the statement a parenthetical one, thrown in by Nepos to explain to the reader the pacto referred to. Both are names for north or northeast wind. Chersonesi: locative case. Treated by Nepos as the name of a town, or small island. JPage 3, i. Are there islands in the Aegean other than Lemnos and the Cyclades? The Hister was the lower Danube. There is another reading quo. What would that refer to?

Mere statement of the fact in narrative by Nepos would require the indicative. Trans, as long as he should be away. The Latin uses the plural, because each had received an imperium. Sic : i. It is usual in Latin to make relative and demonstrative pronouns agree with the noun in this way, in place of using the modifying genitive.

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As a consequence of his being one of these the charge could be given him. Trans, brought word. See group vol-. Hence this phrase in the text, and the opposite supplicium sfimere de aliqu5. The accus. Sardis: accusvplur. They took and burned Sardis, chief city of Lydia. This, how- ever, roused the Lydians against them, and, compelled to retreat, they were defeated at Ephesus.

The Athenians and Eretrians returned home, and the Persians regained mastery of the Greek cities in Asia. Marathona : this was only a short sail from Eretria. The form is accus. It is in apposition with campum ; in trans, remem- ber that in English we say city of Kome, for urbs R5ma. Oppidum is rarely used of a capital city; once by livy, and several times by Nepos. The distance is actually 22 miles by the shortest road.

The Roman pace was double ours, the space passed over between the foot-falls of the same foot. Yet the Roman mile was somewhat shorter than ours. Hence it is chosen here to lay stress upon the suddenness and danger of this bellum. Lacedaemoniis : as the most powerful state in Greece ; the Argives alone of the Peloponnesians did not follow the Lace- daemonian standard in war.

Both Scythians and lonians had vainly appealed to the Spartans for help against the Persians. Keep the same word in English. The perform- ances of some of these runners were most extraordinary. After the battle of Plataea, one of them ran from the battlefield to Delphi and back perhaps miles altogether in one day. In the present instance Phidippus reached Sparta more than miles distant on the second day. Verres i, 14, says : Veteres, omnes magistratus quibus plreret exercitus, praetores appelld-verunt. The qui. Ten generals were chosen yearly. Notice that in 1. Plataeenses : for civitatem Plataeensium, hence Nepos continues with ea in the following sentence.

Notice the case of militum. Qu5 factum est ut : this and similar expressions frequently recurring in Nepos may be rendered: the result was that ; con- sequently ; accordingly. Dein: for deinde. JPage B, i. It appears that the Persians had already begun to embark their troops so as to attack Athens from the Saronic gulf. Some reports have it that the Persian cavalry was not present. Later Greek history affords several instances which deserve mention in connection With this statement ; e. Cuius yictdriae : join with praeminm.

Nepos prob- ably has in mind the Roman triumphs. At first granted only for distinguished services and conferring great honor upon the recipi- ent, later they were easily. From it the Stoic philosophers took their name, as Zeno, the founder of the school, and his followers used to have their meetings here. JPage 7. Nepos has applied to Athens the practices which prevailed at Rome. Parum : some accounts say that Paros was the first island visited. This island U now, as it was then, famed fo[ its marble. E navibuseduxit: Irans. Under these the soldiers could work or advance against the enemy's wall see Fig.

We Icnow that macliines similar to the fiist described were used in sieges long before Miltiades by the Assyrians and Babylonians. But if Che statement of anotlier writer is correct, that the Athenians first used them in the siege of Samos, B. Id COntineDti : a fire on he mainland could not be seen from Paros; probably it was on one of the more distant Cyc- Later, word was carried in this way over the Aegean sea to the Persian king, that Athens had been taken a second time by bis troops. So argued the citizens and charged treason. Stesagoras : a mistake as his brother Stesagoras had died before Miltiades went to the Chersonesus.

Usually in Nepos it means the first. In Athenian courts, the accuser, and also the accused if the latter was ad- judged guilty, proposed alternative punishments. One of the two must be adopted. Consult group CER-, cre-. Pisistrati tyrannidem: including the rule of his sons. Pisistratus himself ruled justly and well, but his son Hippias became cruel and a tyrant in our sense. He was banished in B. Here translate, having frequently held commands and offices. It is easy to see how our use of the word was developed from the abuse of power by most tyrants.

Cf the Roman idea of rSx. Synopsis — The youth of ThemUlocles 1. Themistocles induces the Athenians to use the revenue from the mines owned by the state in biulding a fleet. With this fleet he vanquishes the foes of Athens. At the beginning of the second Peiaian war he interprets the oracle of Apollo about wooden nails 2.

He has a battle with the king's sea-forces at Artemisium 3. Themistocles per- suades Xerxes to return to Asia 5. He founds Piraeus the port of Athens, and begins the rebuild- ing of the walls of Athens 6. His cunning enables him to out- wit the Lacedaemonians who try to stop the rebuilding 7. The- mistocles is banished because of the jealousy of his fellow-dtiiens; after wandering about for some Firi.

He writes to Artaxerxes, the Per- sian king, suing for friendship 9. The king meets his over- tures kindly and bestows Magnesia upon him. Themistocles dies See note on Milt. Neocli: a genitive from a nominative NeoclSs of the third declension G. Huins: the genitive depends on adulSscentiae with which ineantis agrees.

Trans, the faults of his early youth. Quae COntumelia. JPage Themistocles was archon eponymus in B. Perhaps that is referred to here ; but see note on praetorSs, p. The magistrates were not at fault. The money derived from these mines had hitherto been divided among the people according to law. They were the silver mines of Mount Laurium in the southeastern promontory of- Attica. The privilege of working these was rented out to private parties, who paid the state a stipulated sum affording a public revenue, quae ex metallis redibat. CorcyraeOs ; praeddnes : doubtful ; it is generally accepted that the second Persian war prevented the Athenians from using their new fleet against other enemies.

The two verbs seem to have exchanged con- IS ; but here penBiait means taid cenviiteingly, and so la followed by the infinitive in ind. Page 11, 2.

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the Aedifex: Building the Pont du Gard

What is the literal translation? The Athenians evi- dentlyjudged the triremes easiest lo manage, and so most effective ia war. Salomiiui : in the Sa- ronic gulf, half-way be- tween Athens and Megara. After a long war between these for its possession, the Huius consilium : his Them. The Lacedaemonians were quite indifferent, for they might have sent twenty times as many as they did. It was a narrow pass through which ran the road from Thessaly to the south, lying between Malls and East Locris.

At this point the road ran from west to east, and the Malic gulf was upon one side, while the mountain Calli- dromus rose steep and sheer on the other see map. These last surrendered to the Persians as soon as they dared. The Spartans and Thespians all perished. This was our final view of Neuschwanstein Castle, as we walked through the little village at the bottom of the hiking trail. As you can see, there were a lot of tourists there that day, which is typical of summer days in Bavaria.

Gives you an idea of how steep that mountain is behind the castle, that is where we hiked up, to get that beautiful view of the castle. Once we got out of the trees that lined the hiking trail, we were back in the direct sun light, and it was a scorcher that day. The route from Neuschwanstein Castle to Andechs Monastery is straight forward and takes you through some beautifl countryside.

We took route 17 to Fussen, then north on route B to the Andechs Monastery exit. Once we got to Vorderfischen though, we discovered that the normal route to the Monastery was closed, so we had to continue along Lake Ammersee on Herrschinger Strasse until we were a bit north of Andechs near Herrsching , and then we were able to back-track to the Monastery.

The plan was for some German friends to meet us at Andechs Monastery , to have dinner with us and enjoy some of the locally brewed beer. All of us enjoyed several beers, and a good dinner, in the court yard of the monastery - sort of a mini-beer garden. This used to be a great place for their excellent beers, but turned out that it was not as good as my memory of it was! From our rental location in south-central Munich, it was only a 28 kilometer drive to Dachau , which like Nuremberg, was one of our major goals to visit during this trip.

This is a somber place to visit! These concentration camp sites are maintained as "living museums" by German law, and in fact, students are required to visit a camp at least once during their school years. Bavaria started this law, in an attempt to deal with not only the right-wing extremists, but to improve children's knowledge of the Nazi horror years. The number of people who died in the Dachau concentration camp is officially given as 31, Dachau was opened in and was originally intended to house political prisoners and opponents of the Nazi government for the purpose of forced labor.

After the advent of the Holocaust and Nazi Germany's "final solution" to exterminate the Jewish population of Europe, Dachau was used to house Jews and other groups who were targeted in the Holocaust, such as homosexuals, gypsies, religious minorities, communists, and prisoners from German-occupied countries. The camp was liberated by American forces on April 29, The original Nazi SS barracks were converted into a museum, filled with pictures and memorabilia from when the camp was a horrifying prison.

The original prisoner barracks had been torn down after the war, but some have been re-created in order to enable camp visitors to see what living conditions were like there. Our goal in visiting Dachau, was to reinforce Jeremy's understanding of what horrible things the Nazi's had done, and to insure that Jeremy could see for himself, a concentration camp as it had been during the Nazi time frame. For our next and last adventure, we decided to drive to Salzburg, Austria to visit the famous salt mine , as well as the equally famous Festung Hohensalzburg.

Salzburg is only Km from Munich, but because our apartment was in the south central area of Munich, it takes a while to navigate through the city to the autobahn. And yes, the German Autobahn speed limits are indeed "unlimited", but only after you are 30Km outside of any city or village area. Until then, you are required to drive at much lower speed levels and the German Highway Police are everywhere!

You are required to purchase tickets, and wear coveralls, in order to protect you from all the salt and salt water found inside the salt mine. Once everyone was suited up, we all walked to the mine entrance, and got onto a very small train, which then takes us into the mine. After the mini train reaches as far as it can go, everyone dismounts and the walking tour of the mine commences. At one point, we actually crossed back into Germany, giving you an idea of how large this mine is.

As the mine is comprised of multiple levels, the access from level to level is via long wooden slides, which are polished to a high shine due to the incredible number of coverall wearing visitors who have slid down them! Rolling along on the mini-train, headed to where the salt mine walking tour started. It was probably not quite a kilometer or two inside the mountain, but it was a rather fun way to cover that distance!

Mining is no longer performed there, as they have discovered that using water to percolate through the salt, produces a very briny fluid which is then left to dry, to produce high quality salt. After our tour concluded, we drove back to Salzburg to visit the Hohensalzburg Festung, which sits high on a hill above the city. Salzburg is split down the middle by the River Salzach, with the "old city" on the side of the river nearest the Festung, and the "new city" on the other side.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg in the 18th century, and the movie "Sound of Music" was filmed in and around this city. This is the Festung Hohensalzburg , a magnificent example of a fortress originally built by a Catholic Archbishop starting in This view of the Fortress is from the eastern side, and you can see "old Salzburg" at the foot of the Festung's mountain. It might not be easy to discern, but this Festung is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe. This is the view from the highest point in the Festung looking east, with the old city below. Gives you some idea of the height of the Festung doesn't it?

We parked on the other side of the river near the Mirabell Palace , as parking in old Salzburg is impossible to find. After walking around the Festung, as well as old Salzburg, and since the European heat wave was still in effect, we found an outdoor cafe and had some cold drinks before going back to pick up our Renault, to head back to Munich. So, at the end of our 2, kilometer three country trek, we drove our rental car to the Munich International Airport and then flew back to Dulles International Airport in Washington DC. We had a good game plan completely researched and documented before we departed the US and we stuck close to it.

Obviously when you have hotel arrangements, or flights, you have to stay on track to make those kinds of connections. But everything else, was just a matter of what we wanted to do each day. For example, we would keep a "hit list" of things that we would like to do, but we did not treat that list as a "must be done on this day". Sometimes we did things out of order, sometimes we skipped things and did something else.

Or we would drive by some place and decide to stop and see it. Disclosure: Some of the links on this page are Affiliate Links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, that I will earn a commission if you click through and make a purchase. So we would appreciate any click throughs, if you are inclined.

Click the image to come inside so we can tell you more about us. Our goal is to share the knowledge we've acquired through our travels! If you like the pictures on this page, and you are interested in a good performing camera, this is what we have been using for quite a while. Click either image to go to our store. Print Page. Help information. Paris France. Bordeaux, France. Dune du Pilat, France. Bordeaux to Rustiques Drive. Cathar Country. Carcassonne Fortress. Image is the property of Chensiyuan via Wikipedia. Canal du Midi near Rustique, France. The above information was extracted from Wikipedia.

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